Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior

Question #1

In this course, I learned that organizational behavior entails the study of individuals, structures and groups impact on human behavior within a progressing organization. As an organizational being, I learned that organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field which includes psychology, sociology, management and communication. During the lesson it remained clear that organizational behavior supplements organizational theory which concentrates on intra-organizational topics and supplements studies related to human resource. It is through the study of organizational behavior that I gained different multiple perspectives and insights about how organizations behave. In addition, I learned that computer simulation is one of the prominent concepts in strategic management and organizational studies. The lesson clearly revealed that scholars utilize computer simulation in the process of understanding how firms and organizations operate and behave (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012).

On the other hand, the lesson also indicated that researchers apply computer simulation to examine and evaluate organizational behavior at the micro-level. In addition, researchers use computer simulation to focus on interpersonal and individual behavior and cognition. The way people think and act as they work in groups comes to the limelight as researchers incorporate different aspects of computer simulation. In essence, I learned different concepts in relation to organizational behavior and they helped me in understanding how different organizations incorporate these concepts in order to succeed and flourish in their daily activities.

Course concepts learned

Concept One

Effective communication

Effective communication is one of the concepts which I learned in the process of studying organizational behavior. Notably, effective communication plays an important role in various levels of management in an organization. Effective communication promotes the way people live and interact within the workplace (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012).. It is through effective communication that top level management in an organization can make timely and sound decisions. Organizations which make sound and timely decisions realizes their ultimate goals in due time. In addition, effective communication within organizations minimizes conflicts between employees in different positions. Organizational behavior helps greatly in learning how to communicate both formally and informally with groups and individuals. Organizations which have realized the importance of effective communication have moved to the next level of progress.

Furthermore, embracing effective communication is one way of promoting the image of an organization. Organizations whose image is recommendable have attracted large number of customers and most of the customers gained trust and confidence with the organizations products and services. For example, the effective communication within the Coca Cola Company has greatly promoted the reputation of the company worldwide thus many consumers rely on its products. It is evident that recommendable organizational behavior boosts sales in business organizations because customers relate well with the sales team. In essence, effective communication is a concept in organizational behavior which requires mutual respect and understanding (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). This is because employees working within the same workplace come from different backgrounds and they practice different cultures, religions and traditions. Ideally, the concept of effective communication has described how individuals within an organization can promote their organizational behavior through effective communication.

Concept Two

Human resource motivation

Human resource motivation is another concept I learned during the study of organizational behavior. Most of the successful organizations across the globe have embraced the concept of motivating human resources. For example, Wal-Mart is one the best performing retail store which has flourished in most of its operations due to human resource motivation. It is clear that employees require motivation in order to increase productivity. Giving employees rewards is one of motivating them to continue producing more for the benefit of their organizations. Motivating the human resource gives managers in different organizations an opportunity to identify the needs and demands of the workforce. Identifying the various needs and demands of the employees brings forward some of the organizational behaviors which might require adjustments in order to overcome some future challenges (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). These adjustments allow managers to choose the best rewards depending on the performance of the employees who require some rewards for a work well done. In essence, human resource motivation has the capability of managing the organizational behavior successfully because rewarded employees show great satisfaction in their respective departments of work.

Concept Three

Good human relations

Good human relationships are another concept which I learned as I studied organizational behavior. Organizational behavior strives to maintain and make harmonious interpersonal relations that give managers directions on how to deal with the workforce problems and relations in various circumstances. In addition, the concept of good human relations helps managers in understanding different motives of different employees. The concept of good relations also brings to the limelight different ways of how to control the workforce. It is through good human relations that different organizations have realized their full potential in their operations because employees who experience good human relations remains dedicated in their work because they experience minimal challenges (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). Finally, good human relations enhance the way employees relate with the top management within an organization.

Question #2

If I could expand the work which I did with the client there are several things which I could focus on. Some of the concepts which I would address include examining opportunities and challenges for organizational behavior, division of labor and substitution of personnel.

Concept One

Opportunities and challenges for organizational behavior

Opportunities and challenges for organizational behavior can influence the performance of an organization either positively or negatively. In response to globalization managers in organizations face the challenge of managing the workforce because globalization seems to affect people’s way of living in many ways. Globalization has enabled different people with different beliefs to meet and interact in different global organizations as they work. This affects organizational behavior because people with different beliefs might transfer some of the negative beliefs to the organizations were they work. This move can greatly affect productivity in an organization. For example, there are people who belief in certain dress code for women. If such people will secure jobs in organizations which do not practice such beliefs, then conflicts might arise (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). On the other hand, organizations with recommendable organizational behavior have greater chances of conquering new markets unlike organizations with tarnished images. Emerging new markets helps organizations in maximizing profits hence expanding business activities. For any organization to succeed in its operations customer satisfaction must remain the first objective. Organizations which have used recommendable organizational behaviors have increased their customer base because customers and employees and always satisfied.

Concept Two

Division of labor

If I was to expand the work I did with the client I would analyze and discuss the concept relating to division of labor. Equal distribution of labor is an important concept in organizations which ensures that the organizational behavior is well monitored. It is important for managers within organizations to distribute work according to employee’s qualifications, interests and capacities. This idea will bring job satisfaction and work will be done perfectly and as expected. It is apparent that people in different organizations have different talents; hence in the process of allocating work, managers should consider division of labor. In addition, division of labor gives employees opportunity to present excellent results because they feel that they are qualified in their areas of specialization (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). Human resource department within an organization has the mandate of ensuring that qualified personnel execute specific jobs, which requires maximum attention and expertise. For example, human resource department should ensure that all engineers within an organization have their own department where they can execute their functions without interference.

Concept Three

Substitution of personnel

Substitution of personnel is another concept which I would expand with the client. Substitution of personnel entails recruitment of new staff due to retirement, poor performance, accidents among others. Substitution of personnel within an organization helps managers in understanding the human behavior; hence making the organizational behavior more clear for evaluation and analysis. Substitution of personnel presents various aspects relating to organizational behavior. Some of these aspects include attitudes, values, perception, leadership, communication, transactional analysis among others. It is through the concept of substituting personnel that some human aspects are realized thus making the organizational behavior face few challenges (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). For example, in the process of substituting personnel within an organization characters and personality of different employees may be analyzed. This can give managers an opportunity to choose the right personnel in the process of promoting different people within the organization.

Question #3

In doing the work in Question #2, I would pick the following people to be part of my team.

  • Class representative

I would choose the class representative because he has presented recommendable leadership concepts which unite the class together. In addition, the type of leadership exercised by the class representative makes the learning environment favorable. This has helped the class to excel in most of the tests because all the class members discuss issues freely. It is through free discussion that most of the slow learners in the class have realized that they can succeed. In addition, the leadership concepts utilized by the class representative have also helped the class in discovering new trends of studying different and emerging concepts in education (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). In essence, the class representative has shown great leadership skills and concepts which are capable of transforming the lives of learners.

  • Chairman of the social club

The chairman of the social club within the school is part of the class and I would choose him to be part of my team because he has presented recommendable interpersonal skills and concepts. These concepts and skills have greatly promoted the image of the school. In any organization were people live and interact social forums improves the way people view others thus promoting solidarity (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). It is through social forums that most of the learners within the school have learned different cultures practiced by different neighborhood communities. For example, the chairman of the social club has ensured that the management of the school gives every student an opportunity to practice their culture.

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  • Captain of the foot club

The captain of the football club is also part of the class and I would choose him because his efforts have united different students together. Notably, the football club has many fans that support it fully without considering where they come from. In addition, the captain of the football club drastically changed the image of the school because in the past football belonged to a particular ethnic group (Kinicki & Fugate, 2012). Arguably, the captain of the football club has changed the mind of the students through the concept of introducing changing.

  • Coordinator of morning prayers within the class

I would also choose the coordinator of morning prayers within the class because she has excellent management skills and concepts. This has helped the class to properly manage time for lessons and other activities. In essence, time management is a concept which helps organizations to realized ultimate goals and progress to the next level.

Reference

Kinicki, A., & Fugate, M. (2012). Organizational behavior: key concepts, skills & best practices (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

MACROECONOMICS

1. The SRAS curve is upward sloping because:

B) A higher aggregate price level leads to higher output since most production costs are fixed in the short run

2. The aggregate demand curve is negatively sloped in part because of the impact of interest rates on:

C) Consumption and investment.

3. According to the short-run aggregate supply curve, when the _________ rises, the quantity of

_________ rises.

B) Aggregate price level; aggregate output supplied

 

4. (Figure: The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand) Refer to the figure The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand. Panel (a) illustrates what happens when the Federal Reserve decides to _______ the money supply and _______ interest rates.

C) Increase; lower

5. (Figure: The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand) Refer to the figure The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand. Panel (b) illustrates what happens when the Federal Reserve decides to _______ the money supply and _______ interest rates.

D) Decrease; raise

 6. (Figure: The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand) Refer to the figure The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand. Panel _______ illustrates what happens when the Fed decides to _______ government bonds and _______ the money supply.

C) (b); sell; decrease

7. (Figure: The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand) Refer to the figure The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand. If the economy is in a recessionary gap, the Federal Reserve will _______ government bonds, which will _______ the money supply and _______ interest rates. This is shown in panel _______.

C) buy; increase; lower; (a)

8. (Figure: The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand) Refer to the figure The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand. If the economy is in an inflationary gap, the Federal Reserve will _______ government bonds, which will _______ the money supply and _______ interest rates. This is shown in panel _______.

B) sell; decrease; raise; (b)

9. (Figure: The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand) Refer to the figure The Money Supply and Aggregate Demand. If the Federal Reserve intended to encourage investment and expand the economy, it would _______ government bonds, _______ the money supply, and _______ interest rates. This is shown in panel _______.

A) buy; increase; lower; (a)

10. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model) An increase in the money supply is most likely to cause a shift:

C) from SRAS’ to SRAS

11. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model. The economy may move from point i to point h as a result of:

A) an increase in the money supply.

12. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model. If the economy is in a recessionary gap at point f, it could move to point g as a result of:

C) an increase in the money supply

13. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model. The economy could move from point g to point f as a result of:

C) a decrease in the money supply.

14. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model. If the economy is in a recessionary gap at point f, it could move to point g as a result of:

D) buying government securities in the open market

15. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model. If the economy is in an inflationary gap at point h, it can move to point i as a result of:

C) a decrease in the money supply

16. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD-SRAS Model) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy and the AD–SRAS Model. If the economy is at point h because of an open market purchase by the Federal Reserve and no further monetary policy is implemented, in the long run:

A) nominal wages will increase, shift SRAS to SRAS’, decrease real GDP, and increase the price level.

17. (Figure: Monetary Policy and the AD-SRAS Model) If the economy is at point f because of an open market sale by the Federal Reserve and no further monetary policy is implemented, in the long run:

C) nominal wages will decrease, shift SRAS’ to SRAS, increase real GDP, and decrease the price

Level

18. (Figure: Monetary Policy III) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy III. The central bank should adopt policies to move the economy to:

D) Y4

19. (Figure: Monetary Policy III) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy III. Expansionary economic policy will lead to an equilibrium GDP of:

C) Y3.

 

20. (Figure: Monetary Policy III) Refer to the information in the figure Monetary Policy III. Expansionary monetary policy will lead to an equilibrium price level of:

C) P3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain why a recession would, all else equal, decrease the demand for money.

A recession refers to a decline in the economic activity of a country over a period of time. It is usually characterized by poor economic as well as market conditions which may possibly result to increased level of unemployment plus an increase in the rate of inflation within the economy. Studies extend to show that money demand usually declines because within a recession, individuals have a less income. This is because with the poor economic conditions the prices of the commodities may perhaps increase reducing the amount in which people can actually afford since their incomes are low thereby deciding to spend less making their demand for money decrease too (Barro, 2007). It is further agreed that recession results to a reduction in the level of confidence for producers as well as that of the consumers immediately the level of unemployment goes down. The consumers will purely have negative expectations during this period of economic contraction as most of them become unemployed, a condition that results to decline in the expected incomes and according to the consumption theories of economics they will automatically reduce their consumption levels which reveal a reduction in their demand hence will require less amounts of money at this time when the prices and rates are feared to raise. The producers, on the other hand, fail to stock their materials, a situation that results to a reduction in the level of production. They are not interested in obtaining loans or demanding huge levels of money because they are afraid of the possible risks that may arise within these poor economic conditions hence decide enter into cost reduction strategies. This eventually results into reduced profitability levels within the organization resulting to a decline in the demand for employees that makes most of the employees to become unemployed minimizing their incomes and demand levels. Other organizations may not be willing to invest at these poor economic conditions hence their demand for money declines. In summary, recession will purely result into a fall in the demand for money (Sexton, 2012).

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Suppose the annual inflation rate is at 2%, and 8.5% of the labor force is unemployed. If you were on the Federal Reserve’s Open Market Committee, what action (i.e., specific action) would you prescribe? How would this affect the economy, the inflation rate, and the unemployment rate?

           It will be realized that the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) refers to the monetary policy branch within the Federal Reserve which is the American central bank. This means that the FOMC is actually responsible for fighting against unemployment as well as inflation within the country. It truly does this through adjusting the interest rates. It can either choose a contractionary policy where it raises the level of interests or an expansionary policy where it lowers its interest rates. It is generally believed that the government it should ensure that it sets a significant level of inflation and unemployment that will enhance economic growth (Amadeo, 2014).

If I was within the Federal Reserve’s Open Market Committee I would choose an expansionary monetary policy where I would lower the rate of interests this helps in spurring the economic growth and reducing the level of unemployment by a certain proportion. An increase in the number of employed workers will increase the country’s taxable income yielding to a growth in the gross domestic product. I would further ensure that FOMC adjusts the interest rates through setting targets for Fed funds rate. This refers to the rate which banks usually charge each other for the overnight loans recognized as Fed funds. The Fed will then pressure the banks to adapt to its target with the open market operations. Since the FOMC will be geared at ensuring that the level of unemployment decreases by a certain percentage to encourage an increase in the gross domestic product through reduction in the interest rates then I will also choose buying securities from the banks. This will increase the money supply in the market encouraging more firms and individuals to borrow and entering into investment strategies where the industries will demand more labor. This will eventually result to a decrease in the unemployment level and an increase in the rate of inflation (Arnold, 2008).

This above diagram depicts what will happen in the short run in the event the interest rates decline. It will result to a possible inflation where the prices will increase to P2 resulting to a decline in the gross domestic product (Y2).

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Work cited

Amadeo, K. (2014, March 19). Federal Open Market Committee. About.com US Economy. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://useconomy.about.com/od/governmentagencies/p/FOMC.htm

Arnold, R. A. (2008). Macroeconomics (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.

Barro, R. J. (2007). Macroeconomics: a modern approach (Internat. student ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.

Sexton, R. L. (2012). Exploring macroeconomics (6th ed., International ed.). Mason, Ohio: South-Western ;.

Programming Logic Control

Programmable Logic Controller

A programmable logic controller is an advanced computer which is used in controlling and operations of machinery in manufacturing process. This area of manufacturing entails the following, program control instructions ,data manipulation instructions ,math instructions ,sequencer and shift register instructions and programming timers just to name a few (Stenerson,2009). Programmable logic controllers are used at least in every aspect of industries in order to expand and enhance production.

The mode of functionality of PLCs has evolved over centuries in order control systems to include capabilities which are beyond typical relay control, motion control process control and distributive control systems to name a few (Petruzella,2011). Examples of PLC in my working station include: filing machine control system, main factory feed water pump duty changeover system, lead acid battery plant ,complete manufacturing system, silo feeding control ,lift operation and industrial batch washing control system.

Advantages of PLC

  • Manufacturers are able to manage multiple machines during processing which enhances flexibility and efficiency and saving time
  • By use of PLCs ,industries have be able to achieve high level of integration and process automation of machines and therefore improving quality and cost in production
  • Support many programming languages at one point
  • Very fast in communication between controls and programming and equipment

Disadvantages

  • They are difficult to upgrade as newer versions of windows are released to market
  • It becomes very difficult to implement some systems changes as times goes by as it is very hard to find control engineers who are familiar with this platform.
  • There must be long term product support which should be tied to old window versions.

Task 1b (i, ii??)

i)        Switches in PLC are used in operator for input in order to send instructions to the control circuit; in addition to that they are used to provide automatic feedback to the system (Morriss, 2000). They are several types of switches which include ,push button, pushbutton switch actuators, limit switches ,selector switches and indicator lamps just to name a few.

i)Five types of sensors in Engine controls ?

ii) Five devices that may be controlled in an industrial process???

Input sensors

Electronic control system is responsible for managing and monitoring engine functions which initially were performed by mechanical devices like vacuum, centrifugal advance units and carburetors (Bolton, 2006). In this type of electronic control system, some of these functions are managed in three limbs

  • Input phase of electronic control which allows for electronic control unit which monitor operating conditions in utilizing information from input sensors.
  • ????
  • Process phase of electronic control which requires ECU to use input information to make operating decisions about fuel and spark systems.
  • Output phase of electronic control which requires ECU to control output actuators, fuel injectors and ignite to achieve required results.

Input sensors used for injection and spark calculation

They include vane type air flow meters ,vane air how meter electrical circuit, Karman vortex flow meter, manifold absolute pressure sensor, engine speed crankshaft angle sensing and water temperature sensor .

Task 1c

Twisted pair cable

This is a type of wiring in which two conductors of single circuits which are twisted into single circuit for purposes of cancelling electromagnetic interference from external source (Morriss, 2000). These sources include. Electromagnetic radiation, cables and crosstalk.

Advantages

  • It is less susceptible to electrical interference caused by nearby wires.
  • It is cheaper and very easier to splice.
  • It is electrically cleaner as STP wires which carry data a very fast speed.
  • Less like to cause interference among themselves

Disadvantages

1. The STP wires are physically larger and more expensive than twisted pair.

2. STPs are more difficult to connect to terminating blocks

Coaxial cable

This is a type of a cable that has inner conductor by a tubular insulating layer which is surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. It is used to in transmission line of radio frequency and receivers (Morriss, 2000).

Advantages

  • It is cheap as compared to twisted pair wires and UTP cables and easy to handle.
  • It is normally used for analogue and digital transmissions.
  • It has a better shield against electromagnet interference than twisted pair cable, also can span a longer distance of higher bits.

Disadvantages

  • It is more expensive as compared to twisted pair cable.
  • It has slower data rates hence not suitable during data transmission.
  • It is thicker and more difficult to work with.
  • It is more expensive to install as compared to twisted cable.

Fire optic

Advantages

  • Fibres do not leak light are quite difficult to tap hence data security is guaranteed.
  • Fibber is lighter than copper.
  • It is not affected by power surges, power failures or electromagnetic interferences.
  • It can handle much higher bandwidth than copper. However due to low attenuation repeaters are needed for only a distance of 30 km.

Disadvantages

  • Fibber interfaces cost than electrical interfaces
  • Optical transmission is inherently unidirectional, therefore a two way communication is almost impossible.
  • It is unfamiliar technology which requires special skills which are not readily available.

Task 1d

1. CPU-Central processing unit is a brain of a computer where complex calculations are carried out. It is one of the computing powers of the computer system as it does complex calculations.

2.ALU-Arithemic logic unit is digital circuit that do perform anger arithmetic and logical operations .It is a fundamental building block of central processing unit of a computer and even simplest microprocessors contain at least one maintaining timers.

3. ROM-Read only memory is a class of storage medium that is used in computers and other electronic devices. When data is stored in ROM it can only be modified very slowly and normally it is used mainly to maintain distribute software.

4. RAM-Random access memory is a type of computer memory that can access randomly, and any memory can only be accessed without touching preceding bytes.

5. Register-in a computer system a register is small set of data which holds part of a processor.

6. Buses-In computer system architecture, a bias is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer or computers.

7. Flag-During programming, a flag is predefined bit or bits of sequence that holds a binary value.

Missing diagram

Task 2A. i)ii)iii)??

In a circuit, currently loops is a method of transmitting information and is carried in various levels of intensity which represent a continuum of values which are similar to voltage output of analogue to digital convertor and without noise and line length concerns (Stenerson,2009). In 4-20Ma currently loop, 4mA represents a zero value output of sensor and 20mA is the full scale output. This circuit allows room for wire break detection due to 4-Ma offset of zero .If the receiver reads 0mA then the circuit breaks down.

b).In electronics analogue to digital converter is a function that normally converts digital data which is usually in binary into analogue signal. It performs a reverse function where data can be manipulated and stored without degradation (Stenerson, 2009).Therefore resolution is basic variations in bit depth which primary affect noise levels from a quantization error to signal to noise ratio.

C) During automation processing, an analogue signal is required to maintain a predefined conditions .During variable conditions the maximum A/D voltage that can be obtained is 2o volts.

Task 2 b? i)ii)iii)iv)????

i) Octal numbers in a binary system which takes the form and has a base of 8. 80, 81, 82…. And Hexadecimal numbers have a base of 16

Task 2 b,?

Programmable logic controllers have used in manufacturing industries for last 20 years. It was designed as a replacement for hardwired rekey and timer logic to found in traditional control panels .PLC provides flexibility and ease of control that is based on programing and executing making logic instructions (Petruzella, 2011).

Features of PLCs

  • Standard input /output connections and signal levels
  • Ease of programming and reprogramming in plant
  • Capable of communicating with other PLCs ,intelligent devices
  • Easily understood programming language.
  • Rugged noise immune equipment.

Advantages

  • PLC hardware and software are cheap to obtain
  • Programmable logic controllers digital input output are cheaper
  • Third generation DCs are cheap and easy to obtain.
  • PLCs are cost effective and ensures quality during manufacturing process
  • They increase efficiency

Disadvantages

  • PLCs systems are expensive to obtain in current setting.
  • The required skilled labour work force is not readily available.
  • These systems are not easily upgradable and hence compatibility issues

Finally advantages of programmable control logic outweigh disadvantages us it has reduced wastage and increased quality and efficiency in our manufacturing sector.  See online tutoring.